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Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder is a congenital developmental disorder which is neurological in origin and it affects almost five percent of world’s population. ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, poor impulse control, forgetfulness as well as distractibility. ADHD is a chronic disease that has no cure. Mainly children are affected by ADHD and retain the effects even in their adult stages. Attention Deficit Disorder is considered to be a genetic as well as hereditary disease which can be transmitted from parent to offspring. However, accidents like brain injury due to toxins or physical trauma are also responsible for causing this disorder.
What are the principal causes of this disorder?
The exact cause of this disorder has not been discovered as yet. ADHD is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder involving several causes and factors. However, according to most doctors and scientists, Attention Deficit Disorder is a genetic disease that occurs due to the combined effect of several dopamine transporter genes. The genes suspected to be responsible for causing this disorder possess seven repeat allele of DRD4 gene, DBH Taq I gene and ten repeat allele of DAT1 gene. Patients with ADHD exhibits excess of dopamine transporters in their corpus striatum. Other causative factors may include tobacco smoking, exposure to lead or alcohol, head injuries, malnutrition, etc.
How to diagnose Attention Deficit Disorder?
ADHD can be diagnosed by the following steps: –
- Using DSM-IV-TR such as Conners’ Rating Scale as a diagnostic tool
- Observing the child’s behavioral characteristics and examining the child’s family pedigree.
- Intelligent testing, neuropsychological testing and psychological testing.
How to treat patients suffering from ADHD?
There are several medicines available in the market for treating patients with ADHD. However, apart from medicinal treatment, psychotherapy has also been proved to be an efficient method of treatment against ADHD. Certain chemicals like magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids and zinc have also proved to be effective against this disorder.