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The term ‘diabetes’ refers to two totally different kinds of diseases – one is related to the rise of glucose level in the blood, and the other is dilution of urine. However, by diabetes, we usually refer to the first type, which is medically called as diabetes mellitus, marked by hyperglycemia, i.e. high level of glucose in blood. This is caused by inappropriate functioning of the insulin hormone that regulates the glucose level in blood. Diabetes mellitus can be of two broad kinds – type 1 and type 2. The former is usually seen in a person from childhood or adolescence. In this case no insulin at all is released from the pancreas. Type 2 has its beginning usually when a person is reached adulthood. It is the more common kind of diabetes, where the insulin production of the body is insufficient.
Diabetes mellitus, on the other hand, is marked by an increase in the volume of urine. This happens due to the improper functioning of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone), resulting in abnormal dilution of urine. The kidney cannot perform concentration of urine in this case.
How serious is it?
Diabetes insipidus doesn’t cause much harm to the person concerned if the fluid loss in form of urine is orally compensated. Diabetes mellitus, however, can take really serious shape. If persistent for a long time it has its toll on vital organs like kidney, and may eventually go on to trigger multi-organ failure. Other serious implications from long persistent diabetic conditions include damage of nerves and blood vessels (especially of the eye).
Treatment of diabetes (mellitus) largely depends upon the food habit of the patient. Diet needs to be low in fat, salt, and sugar, and rich in fiber. The glucose level in blood needs to be monitored regularly. Type 1 diabetes involves treatment with insulin doses, planned diet, and regular exercise. For type 2, you should have normal body weight, exercise regularly, and be careful about your diet.