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Kidney stone


Kidney stone refers to a condition in which a hard mineral material is formed in the kidney or the urinary tract. One in 20 people all over the world experience this condition in their life. The symptoms of kidney stone include blood in the urine, pain in the abdomen and pain in the groin. Renal calculi is another name of kidney stones.

Causes of kidney stones

Kidney stones are caused due to excess of calcification or stone forming substances in the urinary tract. It can also be caused due to decrease in the normal volume of urine passing through the urinary tract. The calcification is formed mostly due to the combination of calcium along with phosphate or oxalate.

The risks of kidney stone increases because of frequent dehydration due to insufficient intake of water. Stone formation can also happen if there is obstruction in the flow of urine. Kidney stones are also known as infection stones.

Different conditions leading to kidney stones are:

  • Hypercalciuria – which refers to high amounts of calcium in the urine. It happens when too much calcium that is absorbed from the food has to pass through the urine. Calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate is formed which then obstructs the normal flow of urine.
  • Gout – which refers to the formation of uric acid stones because of excess production of uric acid in the urinary tract.
  • Other conditions – like certain kidney diseases such as renal tubular acidosis and conditions such as cystinuria.
  • Side effects of certain medications – like diuretics, antacids that contain calcium and drugs that are used to treat AIDS.

Symptoms of kidney stones

The symptoms of kidney stones include pain in the groin and the abdomen. People suffering from kidney stones may experience vomiting and nausea as well. Blood may be passed in the urine as well. If infection develops in the urinary tract due to kidney stones, then the patient may also experience fever.


You can start taking ample fluids so that the stones may pass through the urinary tract. The doctors may give you pain medication to treat pain in the groin area. If the stones do not pass through the urinary tract, then a procedure known as lithotripsy is performed on the patient. This procedure includes passing shock waves in the affected area to break up the large stone in smaller stones, which can then pass through the urinary tract. Surgery is also performed on the patient by making a small incision in the skin and then passing an instrument known as ureteroscope through the urethra.


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