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Osteoporosis is a disease where due to loss of calcium the inside of the bones become porous and there is a loss in bone mass. When hit by osteoporosis a minor fall or injury can bring about a fracture which in normal circumstances wouldn’t happen. Any bone can get affected but hips, wrists and spine are common area. Women are four times more prone to the disease than men because they have less bone mass, live longer than men, take in less calcium. But if men live longer they are also at risk. Patients may be unaware of osteoporosis until ones suffer from painful fracture. Some live with osteoporosis for decades. Fractures of spine cause ‘band-like’ pain that radiates from the back to the sides .Repeated spine fracture results in chronic lower back pain followed by loss of height or curving of the spine. Hip which is a result of a fall occur from trivial accidents. Hip fractures are difficult to heal after surgical repair because of low bone mass.
Bone density test can be a precaution .Lack of exercise, calcium, smoking, alcohol abuse, fair skin, hyperthyroidism, thin body and small bone frame run the risk of getting the disease. Hormone replacement therapy is a way to prevent osteoporosis. Calcium, vitamin D and exercise should be the first step to prevent osteoporosis. Often, calcium alone is not enough to check bone density; vitamin D is also to be taken .Daily intake of 400-800 IV of vitamin D is recommended for those who are deficient in it whereas a women after menopause require 1,000 mg of calcium per day. It is advisable to derive calcium from food such as non fat and low fat dairy products.
Medicines are available which check and treat osteoporosis. Calcitonin checks further bone loss and reduces pain; ibandronate sodium slows and increases bone density; alendronate and risedronate, raloxifene, teripartide prevent and treat osteoporosis.